Venous thromboembolism

Venous thromboembolism- a condition caused by the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, mainly affecting large veins in the lower part of the leg and thigh. Pulmonary embolism is a severe complication.

VTE consists of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (blood clots, usually in the legs) and pulmonary embolism (blood clots that travel to the lungs). VTE blood clots can cause pain, swelling, and redness.


  • Maintaining a healthy weight in relation to your height (BMI between 18.5 – 24.9) doing physical activity daily for 25 minutes or aerobic activities like swimming is suggested; Try not to remain in the same position/posture for long periods of time getting up and walking around for 10 minutes for every hour sitting.

Be sure to speak with your doctor about:

  • your genetic risk before taking any estrogens (contraceptives); varicose veins in the legs; If having a major surgery tell your surgeon as they may want to use low-molecular-weight heparin as a prophylactic; during pregnancy, you might want to use precautions such as compression tights, etc. Avoid exposure to tobacco smoke.

Moderate risk factors for VTE include:

    • a family history of VTE, especially in immediate family members like parents and siblings
    • sitting for a long time, especially with your legs crossed
    • estrogen-based medications, like hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives
    • chemotherapy or radiation therapy
    • lack of physical activity
    • smoking
    • excessive, long-term alcohol consumption
    • autoimmune conditions, like lupus and HIV


  • Reduce consumption of foods high in vitamin K (green leafy vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, chestnuts) but do not avoid altogether
  • A low sodium diet (<2400 mg/day)
  • Drink plenty of water (2 liters daily)
  • Consume 5 servings of fruits and vegetables each day.
  • Vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin is essential for building a strong immune system, healthy eyes, and skin. A potent antioxidant can help to prevent cardiovascular disease. Most vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds are excellent sources of vitamin E. Some of the highest amounts of vitamin E are found in grapeseed oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, and flaxseed oil. Vitamin E deficiencies are rare, some individuals might benefit from a higher intake of vitamin E for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Sources of Vitamin E- Amount (mg)

    • Almonds (1/4 cup) 9.3
    • Sunflower seeds, roasted (1/4 cup) 8.5
    • Sunflower oil (1 Tbsp) 5.7
    • Hazelnuts, dry roasted (1/4 cup) 5.2
    • Grapeseed oil (1 Tbsp) 4.0
    • Peanut butter (2 Tbsp) 2.9
    • Peanuts, dry roasted (1/4 cup) 2.6
    • Flaxseed oil (1Tbsp) 2.4
    • Canola oil (1 Tbsp) 2.4
    • Halibut (75g) 2.2
    • Eggs, hard boiled (2 large) 1.0

Suggested Supplements:

  • vitamin A - 10,000 IU; Vitamin C - 500 mg; Vitamin E - 400 IU; Zinc oxide - 80 mg.