SOD2 A16V (Mitochondria)-Superoxide dismutase (SOD2, MnSOD) enzyme in the mitochondria that transforms O2- superoxide free radical into diatomic oxygen (02) or hydrogen peroxide (H202). The removal of superoxide free radical reduces oxidative stress. Superoxide is the waste left from mitochondria energy production, and if excess amount accumulates it leads to oxidative stress, cellular damage, and disease risk. Therefore, SOD is important in antioxidant defense for all oxygenated cells.
ROS- Reactive oxygen species-Superoxide is one of the main reactive oxygen species in the cell which SOD2 clears ROS and aids in protection against cell destruction.
Superoxide- a by-product of oxygen metabolism.
Hydrogen peroxide- less damaging than superoxide is degraded by other enzymes such as catalase.
Energy Generation- constantly occurring in mitochondria, superoxide, a by-product and is biologically very toxic and used by cells in the immune system to target and kill invading pathogens.
Exercise- can induce oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise causing pro-oxidants to overwhelm antioxidant defense systems to oxidize lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. In other words, exercise increases free radical production oxidative stress which can damage muscles and muscle metabolism.
The Protein- Provides protection against inflammatory cytokines, ionizing radiation, and oxidative stress.